Sunday, May 17, 2020

Hydrothermal Vents Early Life Theories

It is still unclear as to how life on Earth began. There are many competing theories out there ranging from the Panspermia Theory to the proven incorrect Primordial Soup experiments. One of the newest theories is that life began in hydrothermal vents. What Are Hydrothermal Vents? Hydrothermal vents are structures in the bottom of the ocean that have extreme conditions. There are extreme heat and extreme pressure in and around these vents. Since sunlight cannot reach to the depths of these structures, there had to be another energy source for early life that may have formed there. The current form of the vents contain chemicals that lend themselves to chemosynthesis—a way for organisms to create their own energy similar to photosynthesis that uses chemicals instead of sunlight to make energy. The Severest of Conditions These types of organisms are extremophiles that can live in the severest of conditions. The hydrothermal vents are very hot, hence the word thermal in the name. They also tend to be acidic, which is usually harmful to life. However, life that lives in and near these vents have adaptations that make them able to live, and even thrive, in these harsh conditions. The Archaea Domain Archaea live and thrive in and near these vents. Since this Domain of life tends to be considered the most primitive of organisms, it is not a stretch to believe they were the first to populate the Earth. Conditions are just right in the hydrothermal vents to keep the Archaea alive and reproducing. With the amount of heat and pressure in these areas, along with the types of chemicals available, life can be created and changed relatively quickly. Scientists have also traced the DNA of all currently living organisms back to a common ancestor extremophile that would have been found in the hydrothermal vents. The species contained within the Archaea domain are also thought by scientists to be the precursors for eukaryotic organisms. DNA analysis of these extremophiles shows that these singled cell organisms are actually more similar to a eukaryotic cell and the Eukarya domain than the other single-celled organisms that make up the Bacteria domain. One Hypothesis Begins With Archaea One hypothesis about how life evolved begins with Archaea in the hydrothermal vents. Eventually, these types of single-celled organisms became colonial organisms. Over time, one of the larger unicellular organisms engulfed other single-celled organisms which then evolved to become organelles within the eukaryotic cell. Eukaryotic cells in multicellular organisms were then free to differentiate and perform specialized functions. This theory of how eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes is called the endosymbiotic theory and was first proposed by American scientist Lynn Margulis. With a lot of data to back it up, including DNA analysis that links current organelles within eukaryotic cells to ancient prokaryotic cells, the Endosymbiotic Theory links the early life hypothesis of life beginning in hydrothermal vents on Earth with modern day multicellular organisms.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Music History Influences From Different Cultures Gave...

Jessica Seepersad Music 100 Dr. Manns December 9, 2016 Final Paper Throughout music history, influences from different cultures gave the basis of how music is written, played or performed. In the two fieldworks, I conducted at Brooklyn Museum and Brooklyn College convey the idea that music no matter where it is performed can reach others and tell stories. Whether the music is new or old, all music has a beginning. The two genres of music I studied were classical/romantic and Latin-pop/neo-soul. Those in the classical genre is rooted or produced in the western traditions in religious or secular music. The music scene during the classical period was in reflection to the changes happening in society. It was referred to as the classical period because of their interest in, admiration for, and emulation of the classical artistic and literary heritage of Greece and Rome. In the classical era, music has western staff notation being used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches,melodies, basslines, chords, tempo, meter and rhythms f or a piece of music. During the classical time, it was classified as upscale and high standards because only rich people were able to afford to see the performers. This was the first that public concerts were important to have so that the music was received. The listener’s role they play in the society is what the music is based upon. Latin pop refers to pop music that contains sound or influence from Latin America but it can also meanShow MoreRelatedHow Hip Hop Is Affecting The Youth1540 Words   |  7 Pages24, 2015 How hip hop is affecting the youth When it comes to hip hop music and hip hop culture all together, it can have many influences on people who like the culture of hip hop. His may be from the clothes that are worn and even the lyrics a specific hip hop artist says in his or her music. 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Felix Mendelssohn once remarked that music is more specific about what it expresses than words written about those expressions could ever be. That music has the power to express, convey and illicit powerful emotions is without question, however the issue of musics moral and ethical power, and how that power affects individuals and societies, is one that receives

A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Essay Example For Students

A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Essay I read A tree grows in Brooklyn by Betty Smith. The story takes place in the summer of 1912 in Brooklyn New York. Johnny and Katie Nolan met very young in 1900. Soon, after six months of meeting, and getting married they have their first child, Francie Nolan who is eleven when the book begins. Later they have their second and last child Neely Nolan. As Francie grows up she begins to lose her innocence through a tree-throwing ritual and an encounter with a sex offender who was shot by Katie. Her father drinks more and more and becomes worthless. Katie then becomes pregnant with a third child, Annie Laurie. Johnny dies on Christmas day, which was five moths before his daughter was born. Francie stops believing in God the Christian faith and begins to do poorly in school. Francie and her brother work after finishing middle school in order to help out Katie. She can only afford to send one of he kids to school so she decides to send Neely, and Francie continues to work which allows them to live a little easier. World War I begins in America and this causes the world to change. Francie finds her first love, however he leaves to marry his Fiance before going to war. Francie is left with a broken heart but soon she meets a another boy. Then, Sergeant McShane asks Katie to marry him and she accepts. He has enough money to support them fully without hardship, and allowing Francie and Neely to go to college. They move out of their apartment the day before the wedding while Francie gets ready to leave for college. I feel that Betty Smith relates to many other early 1900 writers in America. She brings forward the realities and struggles of poverty that many other writers have written about. In almost every chapter and character, Smith addresses the hardship of poverty, which gives the reader a feeling of how life was in the early 1900s. I feel that Scott F. Fitzgeralds writing in his book The Great Gatsby is similar to Betty Smiths writing because this book is all about the tragedies that are associated with excess money. This gives two sides of two different worlds in America around the same time. However, both writers write about the positive aspects of the two different money backgrounds and the negative aspects. Betty Smith shows that the most lovable character in the book are poor, but also points out the many hardships and horrible aspects of growing up in a world of poverty. And Fitzgerald also writes about the joys of wealth and success, along with the devastating life of money. For example, Scott F. Fitzgerald writes about the overwhelming lives of Tom and Daisy, who are a very unhappy couple, both having an affair, and living life by covering up their mistakes with money. I think that Betty Smith writes about a couple of different American Ideals. Her characters embody the lives of poverty stricken families, the lack of education that poor people usually have, and the amount of suffering that they and other families in that environment went through. She also challenges the differences between the lives of the wealthy and the lives of the poor, always comparing the two social classes, because even though she has a life full of love and happiness to the most part, she still breams of rising from poverty and succeeding on the other side of life where there are more open doors. In the end of the book Francie is able to fulfill her dream of succeeding and rising above her world of despair and hardship, she feel free has a more open world to explore. However, I believe that she supports both classes, even though she seems to like and support poor people. So the ideals that Betty Smith portrays in her book are that poverty doesnt matter if you have love in your life, and that money cannot buy happiness. .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 , .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 .postImageUrl , .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 , .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178:hover , .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178:visited , .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178:active { border:0!important; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178:active , .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178 .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u96b4fa838710c2877d386ae0ca741178:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: How is gender identity influenced by social struct Essay A tree grows in Brooklyn is a book that is full of truth and reality of a world that I do not know much of. I have such a luxurious life because of the amount of resources and the endless amount of love that I am surrounded by. However, the Nolan family finds beauty in their life that is full of a lot of love for each other even though they do not have the resources to back them up. All of them give up something in their lives for each others well being, whether it is education or money. I really enjoyed her style of writing which really gave you a feeling of being right there with the Nolan family in the projects of Brooklyn.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Nature of Taboo Words

There are billions of people living on Earth, who speak more than two hundred different languages. There are languages of different natures, such as analytic or synthetic; in any case, every language is beautiful in its way. It is always pleasant to listen to a native speaker, even if we do not understand what they are saying.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nature of Taboo Words specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From a mouth of a good speaker, the words seem to flow out smoothly, like a flute melody. However, far not all the words have such melodic properties. Some of them people refuse not only to use, but also to hear. Addressing with these words can be treated as a sign of disrespect, while their use by a good-mannered person is unacceptable. These are taboo words. It is a well-known fact that taboo words constitute a group of lexical units, which are undesirable to be used in speech (Jay, 1). However, despite the prohibition of such words, they still exist, function, and, what is most striking, developing in all the languages of the world. This fact obviously points to the controversial nature of taboo words: they were invented by people, and now the same people are trying to vanish them from their languages, and visa versa, while some are trying to avoid taboo words, others are successfully using them. In any case, it should be remembered that society is the only judge, who is to decide, whether a certain word should be referred to as taboo or not. Indeed, one of the main questions about taboo words is: what criterion should be used, while defining, which words are taboo? Obviously, the words are most likely to be considered as taboo, in case they are aimed at humiliation. Admittedly, as a rule, taboo words have a great destructive power; their pronunciation can offend the addressed person, make them feel disgraced or ashamed (McGregor, 27). Taboo words are definitely a tool of an ill- mannered person. However, despite the rather negative nature of taboo words, they are still sometimes resorted to sometimes. Consequently, there have to be some situations, in which the use of taboo words should be justified, or at least explained. Judging from this point of view, we should note, that offence is not the only purpose of taboo words use. Such lexical units are often used in order to emphasize one’s speech, and make it more expressive. In addition, the use of taboo words is proved to be more often observed in people, who are in a state of emotional excitement. Interestingly, not only negative, but also the most positive emotions are sometimes expressed with the help of taboo words (McGinnies, 245). This points to the fact, that taboo words have a very important function in the society, which is serving as a means of expressiveness.Advertising Looking for essay on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to being useful at a certain level, taboo words still exist in many languages. What is more, they are not likely to disappear. If to think logically, it can be concluded, that taboo words serve as balancing units for the normal language. Indeed, language can only exist in oppositions, and if there are common words, there should be some taboo words. Thus, another function of these lexical units is constituting an opposition to the normed language. In fact, in order to understand the essence of taboo words, it might be useful to analyze the sphere they cover. In case of English language, most of the taboo words are connected to the sphere of sexual intercourse. In other languages, for example Russian, such character of taboo lexicon is also present. However, some of the Russian taboo words originated from Slavic languages, where taboo words were made synthetically, and were used as spells. Logically, those words were to be used very carefully, and they were usually addressed to the most evil enemies. Surprisingly, in French language taboo words are mostly those, which name church attributes (Struck, 1). As it can be seen from these examples, taboo words cover various spheres of life. It may seem hard to establish connection between all the facts, mentioned above. However, there is one feature, which connects sexual intercourse, magic spells, and church attributes. This feature is their secrecy. Indeed, sexual intercourse is an ultimately personal issue, and in our subconsciousness we know that everything connected to it should not be revealed. Similarly, religious rituals are very intimate, and sacral relationships between a human and God should be kept in secret. Therefore, the conclusion to be made is that taboo words usually refer to a sphere of life, which people prefer not to speak about; these spheres are very private, and this determines the nature of taboo words. As a consequence, using taboo words means revealing something secret, showing the bold truth. Furthermore, in taboo words this truth is often used with some rude or negative connotation. All these factors suggest that the first natural reaction to such words is shame. This is the reason why taboo words are most often used by teenagers in communication with their peers, where the feeling of shame is considerably diminished (Stenstrà ¶m, 116). However, despite the often negative meaning of taboo words, some of them are not totally taboo, so to say. Indeed, some taboo words in the linguistic environment can be used with other lexical units, and as a result, they lose their taboo character. One of the examples of such phenomenon is the word â€Å"pussycat†, from which, in case of its division into morphemes, one can derive a very rude taboo word.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nature of Taboo Words specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, taboo words, as any other words, can have multip le meanings, which suggests that their use in different situations is not only desired, but needed. As an example, the word â€Å"bitch† in English has a range of meanings, primary of which is a female animal. Thus, in zoology this word is normal, while in common conversation with people this word can be considered as taboo. Having analyzed the meaning and nature of taboo words, we can now explain the existence of such words. It became obvious that secret thoughts, notions, and actions need to be named; even if people are forbidden to pronounce some things, there still exist names for them. Indeed, deeply believing people prefer not to pronounce the word â€Å"devil† aloud, but they still know this word, and what notion it describes. A similar attitude society has towards taboo words. Even in case these words are not often used, people still need them. Moreover, taboo words reveal one significant feature about society. Their existence proves that the society has a sens e of limits both in their culture and in their language. The sense of shame, which is a very important quality, is also indicated through the taboo words in language. However, the modern world, in which the sense of shame is rejected, suggests that the use of taboo words is normal. Some words, which used to be taboo less than half a century ago (such as the word â€Å"sex†), now have moved into the category of normed lexicon. However, with the progress of life new taboo words appear, as far as it has been proved that society needs them. All in all, it can be stated that the nature of taboo words is rather controversial. Their occurrence, use, together with prohibition are estimated by the society, which both needs and rejects them. Taboo words denote secret spheres of human life, which intensifies their unallowable character. Works Cited Jay, Timothy. â€Å"The Utility and Ubiquity of Taboo Words†. Perspectives on Psychological science. May 2009. 15 May 2010. https://j ournals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01115.x McGinnies, Edward. â€Å"Emotionality in perceptual defense†. Psychological Reviews 56 (1989): 244-251.Advertising Looking for essay on linguistics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More McGregor, William. Linguistics: An Introduction. NY: Continuum, 2009. Stenstrà ¶m, Anna-Brita. â€Å"Taboo words in teenage talk: London and Madrid girls’ conversations compared†. Spanish in context 3.1 (2006): 115-138. Struck, Doug. â€Å"Holy cow! In French-speaking Canada, the sacred is also profane† Chicago Tribune. Dec. 2006. 15 May 2010. https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2006-12-14-0612130414-story.html This essay on Nature of Taboo Words was written and submitted by user Coleman Bradley to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

10 Writers Block Memes to Keep Your Book Afloat

10 Writers Block Memes to Keep Your Book Afloat 10 Writer's Block Memes to Keep Your Book Afloat If you’re a writer, you’re 99% guaranteed to agree that writer’s block is not a lot of fun. Whilst we can offer tips and help you try and overcome writer’s block  and writing strategies, we can also reassure you that you are not suffering alone.The fact that you’re here - possibly having searched for ‘writer’s block memes’ - suggests you’re in need of a little light relief. This post will hopefully provide you with some confirmation that you’re not the only one who’s struggling and remind you that, all in all, writer’s block is a strange and funny thing.1. Your first experience of writer’s block went something like this: What's your favorite writer's block meme? Tell us in the comments and we'll be happy to add it to our list!

Friday, February 28, 2020

Grow like Rice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Grow like Rice - Essay Example Rice thrives in strong monsoon and continental climate. In approximation, about 26.1% of China falls under the subtropical region where rice grows well. Given the strong Monsoon and continental climate China experiences, it provides the most favorable conditions for the growth of rice (Braddbrook 11). I still remember my earlier experiences with rice. One such was a freezing winter when our small town experienced a snowstorm. Luckily the snowstorm did not stay for long as it subsided after about a week. Everything was all white with the snow providing a thick white blanket. My grandparents decided to take me out to play with the snow and snowballs, and to make a snowman in the paddy field. The sight of the lovely rice plants covered in a coat of snow filled me with awe. The sight was so perplexing to me that I found myself unable to move. Seeing the expression of wonder on my face, my grandmother walked to me and said, â€Å"This is what you eat every day. It is growing rice.† I was surprised and could not imagine any relation between those plants and the rice that I so often enjoyed. My grandmother told me that during winter, the farmers always celebrated the snow. They believed that the white snow was like an angel to the rice. I tried to patting the snow away from the p lants, but she stopped me with a sweet smile and said, â€Å"Rice sleeps beneath the snow. Don’t disturb it.† Deep inside, I still wondered how such plants produced rice. Up to today, I have never understood the origin of all those beliefs. On our way home, my grandfather explained to me the whole process of how farmers harvest paddy and make rice. The whole process was quite complicated for me to understand at the time. However, I remember them saying how rice sleeps beneath snow in winter. I also have not forgotten the experiences I had and the great time I spent with my grandparents in the field. As for many local families, my family’s staple

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Roe vs Wade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Roe vs Wade - Essay Example Fifthly, was the district court correct in denying injunctive relief? This paper aims at discussing some of the issues that relate to the right of privacy as derived from the Roe V.Wade case. In 1880s abortion was legalized in United States, and it was allowed when the mother’s life was in danger. Since the birthrate was declining during that period among the whites, the government and other human rights agencies were concerned about it. They termed the declining rate of race suicide since they wanted the women who were born in United States to reproduce. Abortion was illegal and thus if a woman had to carry an abortion it depended on the race, economic situation, and the location one lived (Critchlow, 2010). Poor women who came from other races could not afford it due to the high cost. In 1960s, there emerged a group that was known as Clergy Consultation Services on Abortion. It consisted of pastors and rabbis who dealt with illegal abortion since they sympathized with women. During the 1960s, civil rights and antiwar movements campaigned and came up with women liberation movement, and they wanted abortion to be legalized. In 1963, another group that had trained women created abortion services though they assumed that they were counseling individuals in cases of abortion. In 1967 to 1973 some of the states started reforming abortion laws, for example, they came up with cases when a woman was allowed to abort. For instance, in case or rape and incest, it was allowed (Rubin, 2001). In 1970, abortion was legalized in New York and was to be conducted in the first 20 weeks but did not apply to other states. Roe v. Wade marked the landmark of issues relating to abortion in United States. The case was under the jurisdiction of United States Supreme Court. Roe was the pregnant woman who was challenging the constitution on abortion laws in Texas. It was illegal to